How to get specific menu items from Joomla 3.x via PHP

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There are 2 ways you can do it:

Option 1:

Joomla loads menus every time page is loads. You can access the menus by calling the following methods.

// Get default menu - JMenu object, look at JMenu api docs
$menu = JFactory::getApplication()->getMenu();

// Get menu items - array with menu items
$items = $menu->getMenu();

// Look through the menu structure, once you understand it
// do a loop and find the link that you need.

This method is faster because you don’t need to query database. Simple operation in memory. 

Option 2:

Get it from the database. Either get menu link from jos_menu based on alias or something, or get article # from jos_content by article alias, then create the link

$db = JFactory::getDBO();

//  Load by menu alias
$query = "SELECT link FROM #__menu WHERE alias = 'privacy-policy'";
$url = $db->loadResult();
$url = JRoute::_($url);

//  Load by article alias
$query = "SELECT id FROM #__content WHERE alias = 'privacy-policy'";
$articleId = (int) $db->loadResult();
$url = JRoute::_("index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=$articleId");